The coherence principle posits that multimedia explanations are better understood when they include few rather than many extraneous words and sounds. This too was born out with the results showing that concise materials led to better learning than embellished materials. The modality principle states that it is better to present words as auditory narration than as visual on-screen text. Again this proved to be the case since animation plus audio (both sensory as well as spatial split-attention) proved better than animation plus text. Finally, the redundancy principle which holds that it is better to present animation and narration than to present animation, narration, and on-screen text (where the last two are redundant) proved to be true. This research presents clear and compelling guidelines for instructional design for multimedia messages based upon a cognitive theory of how learners process multimedia information.
(+) Fragmento de Cognitive load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning, by Paul A. Kirschner, Open University of the Netherlands/Maastricht University, P.O. Box 2960, 6401 DL, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
(+) La imagen es de aquí.